About the Shamayim
Shamayim is the Aramaic/Hebrew word for "heavens." Any Aramaic/Hebrew word that has "im" at the end of it, is always a plural reference ... and it's interesting to note that the singular "shamah" appears nowhere in Scripture. This tells me that "in the Father's house, there are many mansions" ... and that, contrary to common understanding, there is no singular place called "heaven" but, rather, many "heavens." And so, learning to use "shamayim" instead of "heaven" or "heavens" is a practice which I believe helps us to adopt a new idea about such things ... and since so many old ideas and customs are based more on fiction and/or mythology rather than fact, it's helpful to embrace these "new," truth-based words and concepts.
The Father's Word speaks of three different shamayim. The general understanding is that the first is the atmosphere of the earth where birds fly - see Genesis 1:20-26 ... the second is what we call space, where the sun, moon and stars are seen - see Genesis 1:14-18 and Matthew 24:29 ... and the third is the one that is "unseen" - the abode of the Father.
Yahshua (Jesus) tells us that He came from the shamayim - see John 6:38 ... and Isaiah speaks of the Father's Throne in the shamayim, which is also the abode of the Qodesh (holy) messengers - see Isaiah 6. And, of course, John was caught up to the shamayim and speaks of his experience throughout the Book of Revelation.
However, the third shamayim is only seen one time in the Scriptures and that is in 2 Corinthians 12:2, and I have a different belief about the definitions of the "first," "second," and "third" shamayim, based on 2 Peter 3:5-7 where Peter talks about how the shamayim existed and Elohim created the earth ... but then he refers to the present shamayim and earth. From this, I believe it's possible that the "first" is the shamayim that existed before Genesis 1:2 ... the "second" is the shamayim that we are presently a part of ... and that the "third" will be known after the Millenium, when Elohim creates a new shamayim and a new earth - Revelation 21:1. If that be the case, then when Paul wrote about the third shamayim in 2 Corinthians 12:2, he was talking about being taken into the future.
In the First Covenant, Sheol (generally translated as hell or the grave) is a place where everyone expected to go when they died - the righteous and unrighteous alike - and is located in the center of the earth.
"Hell" is an English word which has a tutonic root meaning to hide or to cover. Most English translations of the Scriptures use this singular term in place of Sheol (Aramaic/Hebrew) or Hades (Greek) ... however, both sheol and hades have no singular definition in the Scriptures. Therefore, the word hell, as an English translation of the original texts of The Father's Word, is incorrect - except when it is referring to Abaddon or The Pit (see below).
Sheol or Hades are both defined in The Father's Word as a temporary holding place for those who have died and which has two sides to it - a place for the righteous (believers), known as Abraham's Bosom ... and a place, far more dreadful, for the unrighteous (unbelievers), known as Hell, Abaddon or The Pit ... this "bad side" of Sheol also contains two deeper sections known as The Abyss and Tartarus.The Righteous Side of Sheol or Hades:There is a great chasm between these two areas of Sheol or Hades which is uncrossable and separates the righteous from the unrighteous - see Luke 16:22-26 ... and it's important to note that it is also a place of consciousness - the dead are not asleep or unconscious - see Isaiah 14:9-10.
1. Abraham's Bosom
The Unrighteous Side of Sheol or Hades:
1. Hell, The Pit or Abaddon
2. The Abyss
Note: When The Father's Word describes those on the unrighteous side of Sheol, it uses an Aramaic/Hebrew term which means "shades" ... nondescript beings in a place of judgment, with a total absence of righteousness and complete separation from Elohim.
Hell / The Pit / Abaddon / Appolyon
Hell, The Pit, Abaddon (Aramaic/Hebrew) and Appolyon (Greek) are terms which refer to a place reserved for the unrighteous (unbelievers) - unsaved humans only - not for fallen messengers (angels) aka Nephilim.
The Greek word Abyss means The Netherworld or Bottomless and is associated only with fallen messengers (angels) aka Nephilim, and with demons, and with the Lawless One (antichrist) - it is never associated with human beings.
Note: Sheol, Hades, Hell, The Pit, Abaddon, Appolyon, and the Abyss are all places of temporary confinement.
There is a permanent place of confinement called Tartarus. This Greek term, mentioned in 2 Peter 2:4, is translated most inappropriately as hell. Nevertheless, the original text reads Tartarus and defines a place reserved only for fallen messengers (angels) aka Nephilim in connection with the Great Flood - see Genesis 6:1-2 and also Jude 6 & 7. These fallen messengers will go directly from Tartarus to the Outer Darkness, aka Gehenna or The Lake of Fire as mentioned in Revelation 20:14.
The Outer Darkness / Gehenna / The Lake of Fire
The Greek terms Gehenna and Lake of Fire are synonymous and are also known as the Outer Darkness. This is a place which is completely void of hope ... i.e. total and complete separation from Elohim.
The term Gehenna is derived from two Aramaic/Hebrew words - gei (say gay) and hinnom (say hee-nome) - meaning the Valley of Hinnom which is a valley outside the south and west walls of Jerusalem. It was a place where kings practiced human sacrifice ... a place for the burning of human beings ... thus, the mention of burning or fire usually associated with Gehenna. Gehenna is the permanent, final and eternal abode of lost souls and bodies; of lost messengers and humans; the Book of Revelation tells us that Death (referring to the body) and Hades (referring to the soul) are finally cast into the Lake of Fire; Gehenna; the Outer Darkness.
Abraham's Bosom / Paradise
The term Abraham's Bosom is found only in Luke 16:22-23 - where you can see, once again, that the dead are not asleep or unconscious. Abraham's Bosom implies blessedness after death and refers to the place in Sheol (Hades) which contains only the righteous (believers). It was previously located "next door" to hell (prior to Yahshua being raised from the dead), where all those there could see and hear those on either side, but none were able to cross over the gulf between - see Luke 16:26.
Paradise is a Renewed Covenant term ... however, the Aramaic/Hebrew definition of this place is "a royal park or garden" and describes the abode of the righteous (believers) after the Ascension of Yahshua when Abraham's Bosom was removed from the center of the earth and brought up to shamayim, where the Father dwells ... i.e. the place referred to as Abraham's Bosom is now located in Paradise, in the shamayim - see Luke 23:43.
Paradise is only mentioned three times in the Scriptures ... Luke 23:43, 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 and Revelation 2:7.
The New Jerusalem
There are three major passages in Scripture that tell us about the New Jerusalem: Galatians 4:26, Hebrews 12:22-24 and Revelation 21:1 through 22:5. This Qodesh City presently exists in the shamayim and is the dwelling place of the Father and the Son, the Qodesh messengers, and the righteous (believers) who have passed on. It is also the dwelling place of the Father's Ruach (His Qodesh Spirit), however, the Father's Ruach is presently on the earth, gathering the Bride of Yahshua, until the Netchatef (aka Harpazzo, aka Rapture) occurs.
In the future, the New Jerusalem will come down to the earth ... whether it resides on the earth or is situated just above it, is a matter of conjecture ... see Revelation 21:2.
The Location of Those Who Have Died
As has been explained, all those who have died go to one of two places ... the righteous (believers) go to Abraham's Bosom, located in Paradise (previously situated in the bowels of the earth, but now stationed in the shamayim) ... and the unrighteous (unbelievers) go to Hell (which has always been, and still is, located in the bowels of the earth).
Believers Who Died Before Yahshua Ascended
All believers who died before the Ascension of Yahshua are in Paradise. They will be resurrected after the Second Coming - see Isaiah 26:19 and Daniel 12:2 - and will live in Israel, the Promised Land, in the coming Millennial reign.
Believers in Yahshua Who Died After His Ascension
All believers who died after the Ascension of Yahshua are in Paradise, waiting for their bodies to be resurrected at the Netchatef (aka Harpazzo, aka Rapture) ... which, at this writing, is yet a future event. They will return with Him at the Second Coming, to co-reign with Him during the Millennium - see Revelation 20:4-6.
Believers in Yahshua Who Die During the Great Tribulation
All believers who die during the Great Tribulation will go to Paradise where they will joyfully wait for their bodies to be resurrected after the Second Coming, when they will co-reign with Yahshua during the Millennium.
All unbelievers who have died will remain in Hell until the end of the Millennium when they will be removed from Hell - see Revelation 20:11-15. This is known as the Second Resurrection. At this point, Sheol (Hades) will be eliminated and all unbelievers will stand before the Great White Throne Judgment on what is commonly known as Judgment Day. The Judgment is to determine the degree of punishment which will be assigned to each soul ... forever - see Revelation 14:11. After the Judgment, all unbelievers will be cast into the Lake of Fire; Gehenna; the Outer Darkness ... forever. This is also known as the Second Death ... the First Death being physical separation of soul from body; the Second Death is spiritual separation of soul from Elohim - see Daniel 12:2 and Revelation 2:11, 20:14 & 21:8.